Updated: July 2, 2023

Peas are one of the most popular plants grown in home gardens. They are not only delicious but also easy to cultivate. Understanding the different stages of growth that peas go through is essential for successful cultivation. In this article, we will explore the various stages of growth that peas go through, from seed to maturity.

Stage 1: Germination

The first stage in the growth of a pea plant is germination. This is when the pea seed begins to sprout and develop into a seedling. The germination process starts when the seed absorbs water and swells up. As it swells, the protective seed coat softens and cracks open, allowing a root to emerge.

During germination, the pea seed absorbs nutrients from its surroundings to fuel its growth. The primary root, known as the radicle, emerges from the seed and anchors the plant into the soil. At this stage, the roots are fragile and delicate, requiring proper care to avoid damage during transplanting or watering.

Stage 2: Vegetative Growth

After germination, the pea plant enters its vegetative growth stage. During this phase, the plant focuses on developing its leaves and stems. The initial leaves that emerge are called cotyledons or seed leaves. These leaves provide energy to the young plant until it can produce its own food through photosynthesis.

As the plant grows, it begins to produce true leaves, which are larger and more characteristic of peas. The leaves play a vital role in capturing sunlight and converting it into energy through photosynthesis. During this stage, it is crucial to provide adequate sunlight, water, and nutrients to ensure healthy leaf development.

Stage 3: Flowering

The flowering stage is an exciting phase in a pea plant’s growth cycle. It is during this stage that the plant develops flowers, which eventually lead to pod formation. Pea flowers are typically white, pink, or purple, and they have a distinct sweet fragrance.

The flowers of a pea plant are self-fertile, meaning they contain both male and female reproductive parts. However, they primarily rely on insects, such as bees, to transfer pollen from the anthers (male part) to the stigma (female part). Once pollination occurs, the plant begins the process of forming pods.

Stage 4: Pod Formation

After successful pollination, the pea plant starts forming pods. The pods start as small bumps at the base of the flowers and gradually grow larger. Pea pods come in various shapes, sizes, and colors depending on the variety being grown.

During this stage, it is important to ensure adequate water supply to support pod development. Lack of water can cause the pods to become dry and tough. Additionally, providing support for climbing varieties is essential to prevent the pods from touching the ground, where they can be vulnerable to pests and diseases.

Stage 5: Ripening and Harvesting

The final stage in the growth cycle of a pea plant is ripening and harvesting. As the pods mature, they change color and become plump. The time it takes for peas to ripen depends on the variety being grown, but most varieties are ready for harvest within 60-70 days after planting.

To determine if peas are ready for harvest, gently squeeze the pods. If they feel firm and full, they are ready to be picked. It is important not to wait too long to harvest peas as they can quickly become overripe and lose their sweetness.

When harvesting peas, it is best to use scissors or pruners to avoid damaging the plant. Carefully cut the stem just above the pod. Peas can be eaten fresh or stored in the refrigerator for a few days. For longer storage, consider blanching and freezing them.


Understanding the different stages of growth that peas go through is essential for successful cultivation. From germination to ripening, each stage requires specific care to ensure healthy and productive plants. By providing adequate sunlight, water, and nutrients, and protecting the plants from pests and diseases, you can enjoy a bountiful harvest of fresh and delicious peas from your garden. Happy gardening!